International journal of mechanical sciences

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The humidity of the bags may have increased causing the accelerating mortality rate in the presence of atmospheric oxygen in ISS cabin. Note that very low oxygen and humidity are expected for space exposed samples.

The survival times of D. The cell pellets with thickness greater than 0. Survival time estimated from the survival time course of Deinococcus radiodurans R1. The UV illumination efficiency was monitored using a passive integral alanine film dosimeter (Yamagishi et al.

A dosimeter with an MgF2 window and an Au neutral filter (F2, Figure 1D) in an EP was used for analysis. The alanine films in two closet without Au neutral filters (F1 and G1) were denatured too much to estimate the dose.

The film with a quartz window and a neutral filter (G2) needs more detail analysis of the optical transparency in VUV region. The absorption data were used to estimate the VUV dose. Time course of Iq range dose between 120 and 203 nm is shown in Supplementary Figure international journal of mechanical sciences. Each data set was estimated epi drugs respective international journal of mechanical sciences curve obtained from one alanine standard film covered with hexatriacontane (Supplementary Figure 2B).

Hexatriacontane coating was used to protect alanine film from vacuum. However, the alanine film showed unexpected variation in dose dependent denaturation curve. The origin of the variation is not clear yet, though it may be related to the variation in the thickness of the hexatriacontane coating, which is not easily evaluated. The value corresponds to from 3. When considering the microbe pellet floating interplanetary space, pellet is expected to rotate around the axis whose direction is randomly fitted by dust collision.

Considering the efficiency of the UV fetish sex in the EP, expected survival is from 2 to 8 years with UV irradiation, and 48.

The dose is too low to affect the survival of D. Protection of DNA is essential for survival in space. Several types of DNA damage are caused by environmental factors in cat prednisolone, including pyrimidine dimerization induced by solar UV (Horneck, et al. We have investigated DNA damage caused by exposure in space in the wild-type and mutant D.

To assess the type of damage that most significantly affects survival in space, we compared the slope and Y-intercept of the survival curves of D. The statistical analysis data are shown in Supplementary Tables 5, 6.

The slopes of the survival curves of the ground control samples were similar between wild type and mutants, with some variation depending on the thickness. The slopes of the ISS cabin controls were steeper than the ground controls for each strain.

Slope and Y-intercept of the survival curve of pellets of D. Blue bars: exposed to the space environment without UV irradiation. Each error bar shows the SEM. See also Supplementary Tables 5, 6 for the statistical analysis data. The slopes were similar between ground control and space exposed samples for wild type R1 and mutants KH311 and rec 30. UV-induced DNA damage, mainly pyrimidine dimerization, was caused by short-wavelength UV, and is most effectively repaired by the uvrA gene and uvdE gene products.

These genes are most important for survival in space with UV exposure. The Y-intercepts of survival curves of the strains are shown in Figure 4. International journal of mechanical sciences PCR was used to estimate the DNA damage in a short region of the gene (Sikorsky et al.

Copy numbers of the intact rpoB gene Barium Sulfate Suspension (Varibar Thin Liquid)- Multum an 887-bp region were estimated by qPCR using total genomic DNA extracted from dehydrated cells of D. Copy number was used as an estimate of DNA damage because the DNA polymerase reaction will stall at strand breaks and damaged bases in thermacare pfizer amplified region.

The number of intact copies of the rpoB gene in genomic DNA extracted from freshly beclomethasone cultures was quantified as 3.

The amount of intact rpoB gene copies in the ground and ISS cabin controls after 1 year was only slightly lower than international journal of mechanical sciences value. These results support the higher survival of D.

Copy number of the intact rpoB gene in DNA prepared from D. The intact rpoB gene (887 bp) in genomic DNA was amplified and quantified by quantitative PCR (qPCR).

Blue, brown and pale green bars represent 1- 2- and 3-year exposed samples, respectively. Each error bar shows the SEM of triplicate samples. The copy number of intact rpoB gene in ISS cabin control was lower than the ground control and space exposed samples. The results might be related international journal of mechanical sciences the accelerated mortality rate international journal of mechanical sciences ISS cabin samples (Figures 3, 4).

However, the slope of each survival curve of DNA repair-deficient mutant stored in ISS cabin was shallower than that of the wild type strain (Figure 4). If the DNA damage occurred in ISS cabin control sample would be related to the accelerating mortality rate, the slopes international journal of mechanical sciences mutants would have been steeper than the wild type.

Accordingly, the mechanism underling the accelerating se x rate of the samples stored in ISS cabin is not clear yet.

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