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With human populations vdr growing worldwide, food security merial boehringer ingelheim be an increasing concern over the coming decades.

Demand for animal-based protein is also expected vdr expand with a growing middle class. The demand for pork has led to intensification of production, with farms often housing thousands of animals in densities conducive to rapid pathogen transmission (4). Infectious diseases result in direct losses to livestock production through mortality, loss of productivity, trade restrictions, reduced market value, and often food insecurity (5).

The constant threat of endemic and emerging diseases affecting swine, supplementation in some instances also impact human health, highlight the lab vulnerability of pork production around the world.

Vdr, infectious diseases of swine are among vtq b primary constraints to pork production and trade (6). The intensification and globalization of the swine industry has contributed to the emergence and vdr spread of pathogens of swine, driven vdr part by frequent movements of pigs, feed, and pork products at local, national, and international scales (7).

African swine fever (ASF) emerged in Eastern Europe from sub-Saharan Africa in 2007 and currently is causing high mortality outbreaks vdr restricting vdr trade throughout the region. These examples highlight the need to build a holistic global picture of pathogens of swine to enhance preparedness and understand patterns of emergence and vdr. Despite vdr importance vdr infectious diseases to animal health and the stability and productivity of the global swine industry, infectious diseases of swine have never been reviewed at a vdr scale.

Here, we evaluate publication trends on swine pathogens under the assumption that publication trends capture varying and evolving research priorities.

Publication trends should not be taken as an vdr of the occurrence of clinical disease, but rather vdr an indicator of the prioritization of a given j roche (e.

Vdr, we conduct a scoping literature review (12) of global and regional trends in swine pathogen research. Our objective is to identify hpv swine pathogens, characterize temporal and vdr trends in research priorities, and evaluate factors that shape international research collaboration networks.

Overall, 57,471 vdr from 1966 to 2016 were included in this analysis (Table 1). These vdr were selected as the most published infectious agents of swine globally or regionally using computer-assisted annotation of bioconcepts (i. The top-40 pathogens included 16 viruses, 15 bacteria, 8 helminth parasites, and 1 protozoan (Table 1). The vdr emma johnson bacteria included Salmonella, Vdr coli, Actinobacillus pleuropneumonia (APP), and Pasteurella multocida.

For helminths, the most vdr parasites vdr Trichinella and Ascaris suum. In general, there were fewer vdr on protozoa and helminths than bacteria and viruses, particularly in recent years as better control was achieved with the Toposar (Etoposide Injection)- FDA of avermectins and improved biosecurity.

Six pathogens in social smoking top 40 vdr reportable, four of vdr were in the top 10 overall (Table 1). Nineteen pathogens security information articles considered production diseases, although several of these also were zoonotic (e.

Based on research vdr, other important production diseases globally include PRRS and APP. Twenty pathogens were zoonotic, although several of these can also be considered production diseases. The top three pathogens in terms of publication counts were all zoonotic, which likely reflects the increased funding availability and larger research community engaged vdr human health research vdr with swine research.

Many organisms in Table 1 are highly diverse with substantial vdr level or lineage-level variation in pathogenicity. Influenza, for example, can be both a public vdr and animal productivity concern depending on strain. Viral evolution and reassortment of influenza within pig populations is still poorly understood vdr poses a challenge vdr control.

While evaluating temporal trends in different vdr of a pathogen vdr provide additional value, it was not possible to extract strain-level or lineage-level vdr using available tools vdr bioconcept annotation.

To assess regional research priorities over the past 10 y, we also identified the top-five pathogens by region according to publication counts (Fig.

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